Defending Free Speech

Science on racial differences

          Some people in society have been under the false impression that the only differences between the human races is that of skin colour - a belief which is patently untrue. The races, or sub-species, of mankind have evolved over many thousands of years, and - as with sub-species of non-human species - they evolved in different ways, causing many differences: some physical, some mental, some readily apparent, and some not so obvious. Many Multiculturalists even deny that races themselves exist, despite the overwhelming evidence to the contrary.[1]
          Scientists across the world have been discovering more and more differences between the races, and for the political orthodoxy of Multiculturalism to deny these differences is as ridiculous as the medieval religious orthodoxy denying that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Various racial differences
Multiculturalism and racial differences

          There are some very obvious physical differences between the races, that are readily observable:[2]

  • Europeans (Europids or Occidentals) commonly have light skin colour, angular elongated noses, and "round" shaped eyes.
  • East Asians (Mongolids or Orientals) commonly have a "yellowish" (darkish) skin colour, and "almond" shaped eyes with an epicanthic fold.
  • Africans (Negrids or Negroes) commonly have a very dark skin colour, thick lips, "wooly" hair, and broad "flat" noses.
          There are also some not so obvious physical differences between the races, such as:[3]
  • Europeans commonly retain the metopic suture of the skull.
  • East Asians commonly have a lack of axillary smell.
  • Africans commonly have a narrow pelvis.

          Whilst skin colour is one of the most obvious differences between the races, it is by no means the primary difference. Indeed, albino Negroes look like light-skinned Negroes rather than looking like Europeans, similar to the fact that golden Labrador dogs look like black Labrador dogs rather than looking like any other race of dogs.
          The differences between the races of mankind is a complex subject, and can be quite interesting when studied in detail. The differences given herein are merely some common differences.

          Professor J. Philippe Rushton, author of Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective, makes several interesting points:

                The view that race is only a social construct is contradicted by biological evidence. Along with blood protein and DNA data, ... forensic scientists are able to classify skulls by race. Narrow nasal passages and a short distance between eye sockets mark a Caucasian, distinct cheekbones identify a Mongoloid and nasal openings shaped like an upside down heart typify a Negroid (Ubelaker & Scammell, 1992).
                Of course it is simplified to divide all the world's peoples into just three major races. This ignores "Negritoes" and "Australoids," but also subdivisions within the macro races. Within the Mongoloid population distinctions might be drawn between east Asians like the Sino-Japanese and Koreans, and Amerindians and south Asians like the Filipinos and Malays. Similarly, the classification "Negroid" includes Bantu-speaking Africans, pygmies, Khoisan bushmen, and the socially classifiable blacks in the Americas who are hybridized with whites and Amerindians (in the United States by about 25 percent, Chakraborty et al., 1992). Caucasoids include Europeans, Middle Easterners, and members of the Indian subcontinent. It is unclear where still other groups belong. Are Polynesians Caucasian, Mongoloid, or some degree of admixture between them?

          Race is a simple concept, and yet can also be a complicated one. Races are the divisions of mankind, and they can be discerned to have their own sub-divisions.
          There is no doubt that there has been some intermixture between the races over the last few thousand years, especially in the last one hundred years, with the advent of widespread and easily accessible inter-continental transportation.
          Of course, the racial intermixture of some individuals into other racial gene pools consisting of millions of people does not negate the concept of race. After many generations, the dilution of such outsider genes are negligible in the overall scheme of things.
          Indeed, the intermixture of an element of proto-humans with proto-chimpanzees does not mean that the descendants of that intermixture are not humans, just as a handful of dirt mixed into a tin of paint does not render that mix as "not paint". James Mallet, a geneticist at University College London, has noted that even the idea of species can be "kind of fuzzy", although firming over time. In the same way, the idea of sub-species, or races, can also have "grey areas"; indeed, widespread intermixture can lead to large-scale racial changes, such as can be seen in India, but - once again - this does not negate the concept of race, but rather provides interesting case studies of the historic and anthropological outcomes of racial intermixture.[5]
          The study of racial differences is a fascinating and complex scientific endeavour, and promises much in terms of understanding the human condition.

          Professor Andrew Fraser also makes several pertinent points regarding race:

                Modern science has confirmed that race is not merely a "social construct." Despite the myth of equality, race is not merely skin deep. There are significant differences between racial groups in cognitive and athletic ability, behaviour and temperament. ... there are substantial differences between the average IQ levels of sub-Saharan Africans on the one hand and white Europeans on the other with Africans at the lower end of the scale. ... if one values athletic and certain sorts of musical ability, for example, black Africans clearly have an edge over both Europeans and East Asians.
                Similarly, when it comes to the issue of crime ... violent criminals, whatever their race, tend to be people with low IQ and poor impulse control. It follows that, if persons of low IQ and poor impulse control are over-represented within a particular racial group, no one should be surprised if that group, as a whole, is over-represented, as well, among people engaging in violent criminal behaviour.

          Professor Rushton has emphasised two caveats regarding his research into racial differences:

                First, because there is enormous variability within each population and because the population distributions overlap, it is always problematic to generalize from a group average to any particular individual. Secondly, because genetic efforts are necessarily mediated by neurohormonal and psychosocial mechanisms, many opportunities exist for intervention and the alleviation of suffering.[7]

Various racial differences

          Various racial differences are noted below, mostly given as direct quotations:

DNA shows ancestry

          DNA samples can now be tested to determine the race of people, and even their racial mix. These tests have been used by the police to help identify criminals.

                A published report says investigators in the Louisiana serial killings used the Sarasota firm's genetics test. Authorities arrested Derrick T. Lee in Atlanta last week in connection with the killings of at least five southern Louisiana women since September 2001, as well as two earlier slayings. ...
                Mark Shriver, an assistant professor of anthropology and genetics at Pennsylvania State University, told The New York Times in a story published Tuesday that investigators used the test. Shriver, who collaborated on the development of DNAPrint's ANCESTRYbyDNA 2.0, said its findings caused them to shift their focus away from white suspects. An analysis of tissue from one of the crime scenes determined that the killer was probably black. ... investigators had been searching for a white man based on profiling information suggesting that most serial killers are white.
                The Times reported that one of the DNA samples sent by police to the Sarasota research company was linked to the suspect. Analysis showed it came from a person who has 85 percent African ancestry and 15 percent American Indian. Lee, 34, is black. Shriver told the Times he didn't know whether Lee had any Indian ancestors. ...
                The ANCESTRY test distinguishes within a few percentage points to what extent a person is of European, American Indian, African, Asian or Pacific Islander heritage. Frudakis said the test now is being used by about 10 law enforcement agencies, primarily in the Southeast. ...
                Experts have long recognized that as knowledge of the human genome advances, other information could be extracted from DNA samples, including physical traits like race.

                DNA Witness, a DNA test that determines an individual's ancestral proportions, was strategically employed in the investigation of the Trail Side Murder Case in Concord, CA. Detectives used the DNA Witness test to obtain physical information about the suspect. This allowed detectives to focus on high value leads related to the suspect.
                On September 26, Concord police announced the arrest of a suspect in the May 13, 2003 slaying of Kathleen Aiello Loreck. The DNA Witness analysis was completed in mid-August. According to detectives, using DNA Witness allowed them to narrow their investigation and re-weigh the value of certain leads based on the information provided by the test, revealing the suspect's ancestry. ... DNA Witness is the world's first forensic test to measure the ancestry of an individual from his DNA.

Newborn babies

                A study of behavior of newborns ... found interesting racial differences even though the births were in the same hospital from women who received the same pre-natal care. Chinese newborns went to sleep in more or less any position in which they were put down, while whites turned their heads to a more comfortable position. White newborns cried more easily than Chinese and were are harder to console. The most striking difference, however, was in what is called "defensive reaction." This involves putting a cloth over a baby's nose and forcing it to breathe through its mouth. White and black babies immediately turned their heads or tried to push the cloth away, whereas Chinese babies lay quietly breathing through their mouths. Navajo newborns have since been found to behave like Chinese newborns, which is not surprising given their lineage.[10]

Gestation periods

                In the United States, black babies have a shorter gestation period than white babies. By week 39, 51 percent of black children have been born while the figure for white children is 33 percent; by week 40, the figures are 70 and 55 percent respectively (Niswander & Gordon, 1972). Similar results have been obtained in Paris. Collating data over several years, Papiernik, Cohen, Richard, de Oca, and Feingold (1986) found that French women of European ancestry had longer pregnancies than those of mixed black-white ancestry from the French Antilles, or black African women with no European admixture. These differences persisted after adjustments for socioeconomic status.
                Other observations, made within equivalent gestational age groups established by ultrasonography, find that black babies are physiologically more mature than white babies as measured by pulmonary function, amniotic fluid, fetal birth weight between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation, and weight-specific neonatal mortality.

Maturation rates

                It is widely known that black babies tend to be born smaller than white babies but that black babies develop more rapidly in coordination and motor skills. Pygmies have been reported to mature especially quickly; babies sometimes walk and even run at six months of age, a developmental milestone reached on average by Caucasians at age 12 months. Our nearest non-human relatives, the apes, mature in motor skills considerably more quickly than any human group. Compared to whites, African-Americans are born earlier and smaller, but they mature more quickly.
                Blacks have more lean body mass than whites, and they soon grow taller and heavier than whites. Black children begin their growth spurts two to as much as five years earlier than white children. Young black males outpace whites in muscle mass by age seven. By about age 12, when white boys are beginning their growth spurt, black boys are already much more physically developed. For girls, the growth spurt begins about age six for black girls but not until age eight or nine for white girls. Also black children mature sexually about three years sooner than white children.
                There are differences in hormones, body composition, bones, brains,developmental rates, and these differences persist in adulthood. These are all biological realities of race that have many consequences for society.

                Blacks reach sexual maturity sooner than whites, who reach it sooner than Asians. By age twelve, 19 percent of American black girls have fully developed breasts and pubic hair whereas only five percent of white girls do. Blacks, on average, have an earlier first menstruation than whites, and Asians menstruate later than whites. In the United States, the average white woman is two full years older than the average black woman when she first has sexual intercourse, and Asians start having intercourse even later than whites.[13]

Bone density and osteoporosis

          It has been found that Africans average greater skull thickness, compared with Europeans and Asians.[14] There are also other bone differences.

                Differences in bone density between blacks and whites have been noted at a variety of ages and skeletal sites and remain even after adjusting for body mass (Pollitzer & Anderson, 1989). Racial differences in bone begin even before birth. Divergence in the length and weight of the bones of the black and white fetus is followed by greater weight of the skeleton of black infants compared with white infants. Blacks have not only greater skeletal calcium content, but also greater total body potassium and muscle mass. These findings are important for osteoporosis and fractures, especially in elderly people.[15]

                Compared to Whites, the bones of African-Americans are denser, and have a higher mineral content. Denser bones are found even in fetuses before birth, and this difference in density continues throughout life. For this reason osteoporosis among the elderly is less common in blacks than in whites.[16]

                A Purdue University study found Caucasian girls lose more calcium in their urine than African-American girls, although both groups lost calcium on a high-sodium diet. This may help explain why one in four Caucasians develop osteoporosis, whereas only one in 10 African-Americans do.[17]

Metabolic rates

          Metabolic rates can differ markedly between races.

                A... biological reality is the difference in resting metabolic rate between black women and white women, which has been found in America. A lower metabolism generates less body heat, which is a useful trait in a hot climate. However, it means that in a place like America, which has a plentiful food supply, blacks are more likely to become obese.[18]

                Metabolic rates can differ significantly among races. The higher the metabolic rate, the higher the threshold for sensing cold. The Eskimo's metabolic rate is 15-30% higher than that of a European. Equatorial people have the lowest metabolism of all because fewer calories are needed to keep their bodies warm.[19]

Sporting abilities

                Another interesting biological reality involves long-distance running. At the present time long-distance men's running events are dominated by Blacks from the Elongate groups. ... Kenyans dominate long-distance events, and about three quarters of Kenya's top runners come from just one tribe, the Kalenjin, who are only about ten percent of the population of Kenya. About 40 percent of the top runners in men's medium and long-distance events come from just this one tribe.[20]

                In a speech before the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1995, Sir Roger Bannister, the distinguished neurologist and retired Oxford dean was showered with ridicule for venturing his opinion "as a scientist rather than a sociologist" that all athletes are not created equal. "I am prepared to risk political incorrectness," he said, "by drawing attention to the seemingly obvious but under stressed fact that black sprinters and black athletes in general all seem to have certain natural anatomical advantages." ...
                While everyone readily accepts that evolution has turned out blacks with a genetic proclivity to contract sickle cell [anaemia] and Jews of European heritage who are 100 times more likely than other populations to be afflicted with the degenerative mental disease Tay-Sachs, it is widely perceived as racist to suggest that blacks of West African ancestry have evolved into the world's best sprinters, Asians among the best divers, East Africans the premier distance runners, and whites the top weightlifters. ...
                Why do athletes of African ancestry dominate running? Whereas the West African population evolved in the lowlands, East Africans (who are relatively slow sprinters but the world's best distance runners) trace their ancestry to mountainous terrain. Kenya, with 28 million people, is the powerhouse. It is a genetic stew, with studies indicating a mixture of genes from invading Arabs and Middle Easterners. One tiny district, the Nandi, with only 500,000 people, sweeps an unfathomable 20 percent of major international distance events, marking it as the greatest concentration of raw athletic talent in the history of sports.
                At the Seoul Olympics in 1988, Kenya shocked the running world when it's top male runners won the 800m, 1500m and 5,000 meters, plus the 3,000-meter steeplechase. Based on population percentages alone, the likelihood of such a performance is one in 1.6 billion. The Kalenjins of the Great Rift Valley adjacent to Lake Victoria, a tribe of half a million people, win 40 percent of top international distance running honors - and three times as many distance medals as athletes from any other nation in the world. ...
                Although there is no one genetically consistent African population, the environment appears to have resulted in some characteristics shared across populations. Bouchard is persuaded that a large fraction of both West and East African blacks enjoy biological advantages for power or sprint events and endurance activities, respectively. "West Africans have more of the key anaerobic enzymes in their skeletal muscle, those enzymes being responsible for regenerating the energy in the muscle cell through anaerobic pathways," wrote Bouchard. We are talking here about a two-fold difference between a significant fraction of blacks from West Africa and whites from North America. East Africans, on the other hand, seem to have more ability to mobilize the energy stored in adipose tissue in other body depots and to use that energy for prolonged periods of exercise. The key point is that these biological characteristics are not unique to either West or East African blacks. These characteristics are seen in all populations, including whites. However, based on the limited number of studies available, there seems to be more African Blacks with such characteristics than there are in other populations.
                Considering the hotter-than-hot nature of the debate, it is not surprising that the most balanced views originate with those outside the United States. "There is an environment in the US which prevents individuals from even talking about this topic," said Bouchard. "I do not feel this pressure at all here in Canada. We talk openly about this issue and treat it as a scientific matter. I believe that we need to look at the causes of differences in performance between races as legitimately as we do when we study or discuss differences in diseases between the various races. I have always worked with the hypothesis that ignorance fosters prejudice. [Critical inquiry] is the greatest safeguard against prejudice."

                Body structure differences likely account for the differential success of blacks at sporting events. Blacks are disproportionately successful in sports involving running and jumping but not at all successful at sports such as swimming. For example in the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, blacks won every men's running race. On the other hand, no black swimmer has ever qualified for the U.S. Olympic swim team. The bone density differences mentioned above may be a handicap for swimming.
                The physique and physiology of blacks may give them a genetic advantage in running and jumping, as discussed in Runner's World by long time editor Amby Burfoot (1992). For example, blacks have less body fat, narrower hips, thicker thighs, longer legs, and lighter calves. From a biomechanical perspective, this is a useful package. Narrow hips allow for efficient, straight-ahead running. Strong quadricep muscles provide horsepower, and light calves reduce resistance.
                With respect to physiology, West Africans are found to have significantly more fast-twitch fibers and anaerobic enzymes than whites. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are thought to confer an advantage in explosive, short duration power events such as sprinting. East and South African blacks, by contrast, have muscles that provide great endurance by producing little lactic acid and other products of muscle fatigue.
                A number of direct performance studies have shown a distinct black superiority in simple physical tasks such as running and jumping. Often, the subjects in these studies were very young children who had no special training. Blacks also have a significantly faster patellar tendon reflex time (the familiar knee-jerk response) than white students. Reflex time is obviously an important variable for sports that require lightning reflexes. It would be interesting to know if the measures on which blacks performed best were the ones on which Orientals performed poorest, and vice versa. Do reflex times and percentage of fast-twitch muscle show a racial gradient, and is it one opposite to that of cognitive decision time? Is this ultimately a physiological tradeoff?

                Despite being only about 12% of the population, blacks dominate professional basketball and football. Every major running record is held by someone of African descent. Even within the black population, differences in specific athletic abilities are apparent. East Africans excel at long distance running while West Africans dominate the short distance races. In the 100m, the 10-second barrier has been broken 134 times; in every case the runner was a West African or someone of West African ancestry.[23]

                In the United States, where African Americans make up about 13 percent of the population, almost 90 percent of professional basketball players, 70 percent of the National Football League, and more than a third of professional baseball is black. In Britain, with a black population of less than 2 percent, one in 5 professional footballers is black. Blacks have also come to dominate world boxing. ...
                To the degree that this is a purely scientific debate, there is actually not much debate at all. "If you can believe that individuals of recent African ancestry are not genetically advantaged over those of European and Asian ancestry in certain athletic endeavors," declares University of California at Berkeley biological anthropologist Vincent Sarich, "then you probably could be led to believe just about anything. But such dominance will never convince those whose minds are made up that genetics plays no role in shaping the racial patterns we see in sports. When we discuss issues such as race, it pushes buttons and the cerebral cortex just shuts down."


                There are racial differences in the production of odor produced by the apocrine glands (J. R. Baker, 1974). These glands are associated with underarm and genital hair and become active when people are frightened or aroused. Blacks have more and larger apocrine glands than Caucasians and Caucasians more than Orientals. The Sino-Japanese are very sensitive to smell and doctors specialize in treatment for body odors.[25]

                Apocrine glands, which produce scents that we commonly refer to as body odor, vary widely among the races. Asians have an extremely low distribution of apocrines (Koreans are among the least odor-producing people on Earth - 50% of them have no apocrine glands at all). With regard to other races, blacks have a slightly higher distribution of apocrine glands than whites.[26]

Ear wax

                Ear wax among races is quite different. One of the most accurate ways to distinguish Asians from blacks and whites is to check for differences in ear wax. Asians produce dry, crumbly ear wax. Blacks and whites produce moist, adhesive ear wax.[27]

                Earwax comes in two types, wet and dry. The wet form predominates in Africa and Europe, where 97 percent or more of the people have it, and the dry form among East Asians, while populations of Southern and Central Asia are roughly half and half.[28]

                An international team of researchers studied the genes of people from 33 populations across the world. They found ethnicity affects which form of the gene people have, and therefore their earwax type. ... Dry earwax is seen in up to 95% of East Asians, but no more than 3% of people of European and African origin. In both Europeans and Africans, the wet type completely dominates. ... Armpit odour has been linked to wet-type earwax. And since apocrine glands are also found in the breast, there is a suggestion that a better understanding of how they work could offer clues about how breast cancer develops.[29]

                Cerumen (Ear Wax). The waxy substance that accumulates in our ears has two different types that are under the control of a pair of alleles. The wet, sticky wax is determined by a dominant allele whereas the wax of dry, flaky consistency is determined by a recessive. In addition to the stickiness or dryness, the waxes differ in their lipid (fat) content and in the quantity of antibodies that they contain.
                The ear wax types vary throughout the world's populations. A majority of Asians (80 to 90 percent) have the dry type, in contrast to Europeans and Africans, who usually have the wet ear wax. Among Asians and populations of Asian descent, though, there is a cline of variation that correlates with temperature. Dry ear wax is frequent in northern Asian populations while the wet type is found more often among tropical populations in both Asia and the Americas. For example, 93 percent of Mayan Indians in the Yucatan of southern Mexico have the wet type of ear wax. Because of this clinal distribution and because of lipid and antibody differences, there is a probability that wet ear wax may serve some protective function in hot, humid climes. However, there is no conclusive evidence.

Voice modulation

                Blacks have deeper voices than whites. In one study, Hudson and Holbrook (1982) gave a reading task to 100 black men and 100 black women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 29 years. The fundamental vocal frequencies were measured and compared to white norms. The frequency for black men was 110 Hz, lower than the 117 Hz for white men, and the frequency for black women was 193 Hz, lower than the frequency of 217 Hz for white women.[31]


                Black adults hear better than white adults, a government study found. The study also found that women hear better than men. ...
                Previous research reached similar findings about racial and sex differences, but the new study by scientists with the federal National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was the largest national sample to report such a finding, experts in acoustics said.
                The racial difference may be related to melanin, a skin pigment. Some scientists believe black people's larger amounts of melanin protect them from noise-induced hearing loss as the years go by, study researcher William Murphy said. Scientists suspect melanin plays a role in how the body removes harmful chemical compounds caused by damage to the sensitive hair cells in the inner ear.


                African American youth have higher general self-esteem than whites or Orientals. ... African American groups have consistently more positive scores on the majority of specific self-belief indices, particularly regarding appearance and attractiveness but also including competence in reading, science, and social studies (but not mathematics), despite their lower self-reported (and actual) academic achievement. The only beliefs in which the blacks scored lower than the whites were those that reflected self-efficacy and control of events that happened to self.
                Many results now confirm Hare's (1985:41) conclusion that "African American adolescents can be theorized to be feeling relatively better, but doing relatively worse, lending importance to study of the sources as well as the levels of self-esteem" (his italics). Nyborg (1994) proposes that self-esteem is partly a function of steroid action and that African-Americans have more testosterone than whites.


                Myopia, also known as nearsightedness or short sight is a condition where near objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurred. ...
                There are considerable racial differences of myopia magnitude and prevalence (Garner 1999; Lin 1999; Maul 2000; Voo 1998; Zhan 2000). The prevalence and magnitude of myopia are typically greater in Asia than other parts of the world (Lin 1999; Zhan 2000). ...
                Evidence that myopia is genetically determined comes from studies of twins and studies of parents and their children. Twins with similar genetic material had more similar refractive errors than twins with dissimilar genetic material. Maximum likelihood models estimated greater genetic effects than environmental effects for myopia (Chen 1985; Hammond 2001).

Brain usage

          A study of the areas of the brain used by Chinese in solving mathematic questions showed that the Chinese used different areas of the brain compared to Westerners.

                Things add up differently for native English speakers compared with people who learned Chinese as a first language.
                Simple arithmetic was easily done by both groups, but they used different parts of the brain, a new study shows.
                Researchers used brain imaging to see which parts of the brain were active while people did simple addition problems, such as 3 plus 4 equals 7. All participants were working with Arabic numerals which are used in both cultures.
                Both groups engaged a portion of the brain called the inferior parietal cortex, which is involved in quantity representation and reading. But native English speakers also showed activity in a language processing area of the brain, while native Chinese speakers used a brain region involved in the processing of visual information, according to the report in Tuesday's issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                The difference "may mean that Chinese speakers perform problems in a different manner than do English speakers," said lead author Yiyuan Tang of Dalian University of Technology in Dalian, China. ...
                Richard E. Nisbett, co-director of the Culture and Cognition Program at the University of Michigan, said "the work is important because it tells us something about the particular pathways in the brain that underlie some of the differences between Asians and Westerners in thought patterns." ... "They literally are seeing the world differently," he said. The new work extends his findings, Nisbett said, "in that it indicates that the reasoning differences that we find between Asians and Westerners are really quite deep."

          The question is whether this is a cultural trait, due to language, or whether it is a racial trait, due to genetics; this could be determined by a comparison of Chinese from English-speaking families (for example, from those present in the USA for several generations) and of those from Chinese-speaking families.

Brain evolution

          Recent research has revealed evidence of evolution in brains, especially amongst people from Europe, Asia, and the Americas, but not so prevalent in those from sub-Saharan Africa.

                Last September, Bruce Lahn, a professor of human genetics at the University of Chicago, stood before a packed lecture hall and reported the results of a new DNA analysis: He had found signs of recent evolution in the brains of some people, but not of others.
                It was a triumphant moment for the young scientist. He was up for tenure and his research was being featured in back-to-back articles in the country's most prestigious science journal. Yet today, Dr. Lahn says he is moving away from the research. "It's getting too controversial," he says.
                Dr. Lahn had touched a raw nerve in science: race and intelligence.
                What Dr. Lahn told his audience was that genetic changes over the past several thousand years might be linked to brain size and intelligence. He flashed maps that showed the changes had taken hold and spread widely in Europe, Asia and the Americas, but weren't common in sub-Saharan Africa. ...
                More recently, Dr. Lahn says he was moved when a student asked him whether some knowledge might not be worth having. It is a notion to which he has been warming.


          Interestingly, many Multiculturalists are comfortable with recognising that Asians are better at mathematics (although they ascribe this to "culture") and Africans are better at sprinting, but become outraged when faced with scientific proof of racial differences in IQ scores. Multiculturalists try to fight the issue of genetically determined intelligence by issuing a variety of desperate claims.
          Some have tried to claim that intelligence can't be measured, but studies have actually shown that IQ can be measured. The measurements may not be as exact as, for instance, measuring rainfall, but they are substantially accurate. People of low intelligence consistently score low in IQ tests, whilst people of high intelligence consistently score high in IQ tests - this wouldn't happen if IQ tests were inaccurate.
          Some have tried to claim that IQ doesn't matter in the "real world", but it has been shown that higher-level employment correlates with high-IQ scores, and studies of leaders in academia and business show that such people generally score high in IQ tests.[37]

          That intelligence is largely genetically determined is easily proven by reference to studies of identical twins, in particular of identical twins raised apart. Correlations between identical twins by age 6 to age 15 emerge at a much higher rate than correlations between non-identical twins. Studies have shown that the IQ of non-identical twins (and of siblings) is closer together than that of randomly matched people, and that the IQ of identical twins is even closer together - notably, this includes the IQ of twins raised apart, such as twins that were adopted out to different families, and who had therefore been raised in different environments.[38]

          If the environment was the only factor in producing intelligence, then the IQ of twins raised apart should be no closer together than that of randomly matched people, but studies of the IQ of twins raised apart have instead shown that intelligence is indeed largely genetically determined, with a heritability estimate of approximately 70% from four studies of mainly middle-aged adults. The heritability of intelligence is shown to be between 40% and 80% depending upon age, with the heritability of cognitive ability being revealed more with the increasing age of test subjects. If genetics had no impact upon intelligence, then environment would have an influence of 100% and the genetic influence would be 0%.[39]

          Professor Linda S. Gottfredson reports that

                Studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, published in the past decade by a group led by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., of the University of Minnesota and other scholars, show that about 40 percent of IQ differences among preschoolers stems from genetic differences but that heritability rises to 60 percent by adolescence and to 80 percent by late adulthood. With age, differences among individuals in their developed intelligence come to mirror more closely their genetic differences. It appears that the effects of environment on intelligence fade rather than grow with time. In hindsight, perhaps this should have come as no surprise. Young children have the circumstances of their lives imposed on them by parents, schools and other agents of society, but as people get older they become more independent and tend to seek out the life niches that are most congenial to their genetic proclivities. ...
                Research has shown that although shared environments do have a modest influence on IQ in childhood, their effects dissipate by adolescence. The IQs of adopted children, for example, lose all resemblance to those of their adoptive family members and become more like the IQs of the biological parents they have never known.

          The Report of a Task Force established by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association says

                The correlation between MZ twins [identical twins] reared apart, which directly estimates h2 [heritability], ranged from .68 to .78 in five studies involving adult samples from Europe and the U.S. (McGue et al., 1993). The correlation between unrelated children reared together in adoptive families, which directly estimates c2[between-family variance], was approximately zero for adolescents in two adoption studies (Scarr & Weinberg, 1978; Loehlin, Horn, & Willerman, 1989) and .19 in a third (the Minnesota transracial adoption study: Scarr, Weinberg & Waldman, 1993).[41]

          Thomas Jackson, in his review of Race, considers the role of intelligence in racial differences:

                Intelligence is, of course, one of the most crucial race differences, and Prof. Sarich and Mr. Miele are not afraid to take it up. They review the findings of racial differences in brain size, noting that it has a 0.4 correlation with tested intelligence. They point out that individuals can vary in brain size by as much as 400 cc - the size of a chimpanzee brain. There are races that differ in average brain size by 300 cc, and show corresponding differences in average intelligence.
                Some have argued that there cannot be racial differences in intelligence because it is a crucial aspect of humanity to which all groups would have devoted equal evolutionary effort. This is silly. The authors point out that in terms of metabolic cost, brain tissue is very expensive, so brains would have grown only as a result of tradeoffs with maturation time, size of the birth canal, diversion of blood supply away from other organs, and a host of other factors. It would have been astonishing if all these tradeoffs had turned out identically in populations that show so many other differences. Evolution in brain size - and intelligence - has been very rapid, and was possible only because there is so much variation in these traits. There is variation not just between individuals but between races.
                Any thorough racial comparison of IQ runs up against the finding that sub-Saharan Africans have an average of 75. Is the continent really populated by the retarded? Prof. Sarich and Mr. Miele point out that in white populations, an IQ this low is usually only one of several serious defects that leave a person incapable of leading a normal life. However, among Africans, IQs of 70 or even lower are simply the result of normal distribution, and can be found among people who are otherwise normal.
                An IQ of 75 is, as Race points out, the mental equivalent of a 12-year-old. Twelve-year-olds can drive cars and some can even fix them. Twelve-year-olds can do arithmetic and follow reasonably complex instructions. What they cannot do is run a modern society. As the authors point out, an intelligent population can tolerate a certain number of low-IQ people, but once they reach a certain proportion, the quality and texture of life change completely. This is what we find in many Third-World countries and in those parts of the United States where blacks or Hispanics are dominant.

          Jared Taylor, in his review of Race, Evolution, and Behavior by Professor J. Philippe Rushton of the University of Western Ontario, also describes genetic and racial differences in intelligence:

                Some of the most startling and convincing data on the relative influences of genes vs. environment come from studies of identical twins who were separated at birth and reared apart. Identical twins come from a single egg that splits in two; the twins are genetically identical. Fraternal twins are produced by a double ovulation and are no more genetically alike than ordinary siblings. (Unlike fraternal twinning rates, there are no racial differences in the frequencies of identical twinning.)
                The crucial finding is that identical twins reared apart are more like each other in virtually every way than are fraternal twins who were reared in the same household. From these similarities it is possible to estimate how much of the variation in personality traits is caused by genes and how much by environment.
                Intelligence, which is one of the most important, stable and most frequently measured traits, is also one of the most heritable. Variations in intelligence within a population appear to be 60 to 80 percent governed by heredity.
                Whites - 100, Asians - 105, American blacks (who are about 25 percent white) - 85, African blacks - 70 to 75, Amerindians (including Central and Latin Americans with little or no European blood) - 89, Polynesians, Micronesians, Melanesians, and Maoris - 80 to 95.
                Although Asians have a higher general intelligence than whites, the difference is mainly in visuo-spatial performance rather than verbal ability. This makes Asians good engineers and mathematicians, but they do not have a pronounced advantage in careers like law or language teaching. Not surprisingly, a 1980s survey of professions in the United States found that Chinese-Americans were over-represented in the sciences at a rate six times their proportion in the population. However, there were only one fourth as many Chinese-American lawyers as their numbers would suggest. Blacks were minimally represented in both fields.
                Although it is common to criticize IQ tests precisely because they give disparate results by race, there are other, more obviously biological indicators of intelligence that cannot be accused of "cultural bias." One that Prof. Rushton himself has studied in depth is brain size.
                Larger heads (containing larger brains) are positively correlated with intelligence. This is true within families, with the sibling with the largest head likely to be the most intelligent. It is also true within races, with large-brained blacks or Asians likely to be more intelligent than their small-brained co-racialists.
                As groups, whites and Asians have larger brains than blacks. At age seven, for example, black children are 16 percentile points taller than white children, but their head perimeter is eight percentile points smaller. Asians are likely to have larger brains than whites, though some indications of larger size appear only after correcting upward for the fact that Asians are smaller than whites. A small person with the same sized brain as a big person can be thought of as having a "larger" brain, because smaller bodies require less brain to maintain basal functions.
                Whites probably have about 100 million fewer cerebral neurons, on average, than Asians and blacks have about 480 million fewer than whites. The black/Asian difference is especially significant because of differences in body size. Blacks with small brains in large bodies are at a serious intellectual disadvantage compared to Asians because a larger proportion of their already-smaller brains is probably occupied with basal functions and not available for conscious thought.
                Identical twins are about twice as much alike in terms of altruism and aggression as fraternal twins. Studies in both Europe and Japan have confirmed that when a twin has been convicted of a crime, an identical co-twin is two to three times more likely also to have been convicted than is a fraternal co-twin.
                Shyness and sociability also appear very early in children and endure through adulthood. Studies of identical twins reared apart have shown astonishing similarities not only in personality, but in careers, frequencies of marriage, style of dress, and individual mannerisms.
                Research also shows that predictions about criminal behavior in adopted children can be made more accurately from the behavior of biological parents rather than adoptive parents. Some time between the ages of 21 and 30, the adult personality is "set like plaster," and environment seems to have little effect on it.
                Although trendy talk of "self-esteem" suggests otherwise, blacks have higher opinions of themselves than whites, who have higher opinions of themselves than Asians. Asians are the most introverted and anxious; blacks are the least. Suicide figures reflect this: Whites kill themselves twice as frequently as blacks, and Asians kill themselves more often than whites. Self-consciousness and introspection seem to rise along with K characteristics.
                Rates of mental instability show the opposite trend. Two hundred and forty out of every 100,000 blacks are in mental institutions whereas only 162 of every 100,000 whites are. Nor is this a function of poverty or wealth; blacks suffer from mental disorders, drug addiction, and alcoholism at higher rates than whites in all social classes. Asians, despite their introversion and anxiety, have the fewest mental problems.

          Professor Rushton writes:

                Since the time of World War I, when widespread testing began, African-descended people have scored lower than whites on assessments of intelligence and educational attainment (Loehlin et al., 1975). Fewer people are aware that Orientals often score higher than whites on the same tests whether assessed in Canada and the United States, or in their home countries (P E. Vernon, 1982). In an overview of mathematics education, for example, Steen (1987) showed that within the United States, the proportion of Oriental-American students who achieve high mathematics scores (above 650) on the Scholastic Aptitude Test is twice the national average while the proportion of black students who do so is much less than one-fourth the national average.
                ... for general intelligence the Mongoloid peoples tend in the majority of studies to obtain somewhat higher means than Caucasoids. This is the case in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and the People's Republic of China. The range is from 97 to 116, with a mean of around 105.
                A striking feature of the result for Mongoloids is that their verbal IQs are consistently lower than their visuospatial IQs. In most studies the differences are substantial, amounting to between 10 to 15 IQ points. This pattern is present in Japan, Hong Kong, the United States, and Canada. This difference also shows up in the United States on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, in which Mongoloids invariably do better than Caucasoids on the mathematics test (largely a measure of general intelligence and visuospatial ability) but also less well than Caucasoids on the verbal test (Wainer, 1988).
                Research on the academic accomplishments of Mongoloids in the United States continues to grow. Caplan, Choy, and Whitmore (1992) gathered survey and test score data on 536 school-age children of Indochinese refugees in five urban areas around the United States. Unlike some of the previously studied populations of "boat people," these refugees had had limited exposure to Western culture, knew virtually no English when they arrived, and often had a history of physical and emotional trauma. Often they came with nothing more than the clothes they wore. All the children attended schools in low-income metropolitan areas. The results showed that whether measured by school grades or nationally normed standardized tests, the children were above average overall, "spectacularly" so in mathematics.
                The mean IQs of Negroids are invariably found to be lower than those of Caucasoids. Three hundred and sixty-two investigations done in the United States were presented by Shuey (1966) who reported the overall mean IQ of Afro-Americans to be approximately 85. Subsequent studies in the United States such as those by Coleman et al. (1966), Broman et al. (1987), and others have confirmed this figure. ...
                As a result of these studies, carried out across different intelligence tests and cohorts, it is sometimes assumed that the mean IQ of all Negroids is approximately 85. R. Lynn noted, however, that most African-Americans are Negroid-Caucasoid hybrids with about 25 percent Caucasian admixture (Chakraborty, Kamboh, Nwankwo, & Ferrell, 1992) and he believed a similar proportion was probably true of blacks in the West Indies and Britain. It is possible, therefore, that the mean IQs of non-mixed Africans will be lower than that of the hybrids. R. Lynn tested this hypothesis by examining the literature from Africa.
                An early study of the intelligence of "pure" African Negroids was carried out in South Africa by Fick (1929). He administered the American Army Beta Test, a nonverbal test designed for those who could not speak English, to 10- to 14-year-old white, black African, and mixed-race (mainly NegroidCaucasoid hybrid) schoolchildren. In relation to the white mean of 100, based on more than 10,000 children, largely urban black African children obtained a mean IQ of 65, while urban mixed-race children obtained a mean IQ of 84. Thus South African mixed races obtained a mean IQ virtually identical to that of African-Americans.
                The other studies of the IQs of black Africans ... show means in the range of 65 to 86, with a mean of about 75. R. Lynn cited the work of Owen (1989) as the best single study. Owen presented results for 1,093 16-year-olds in the eighth grade who had been in school for around eight years and should have been knowledgeable about paper and pencil tests. The test used was the South African Junior Aptitude, which provides measures of verbal and nonverbal reasoning, spatial ability, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, and memory. The mean IQ of the sample in comparison with white South African norms is 69, which is also around the median of the studies listed in Table 6.6. R. Lynn rounded this figure to 70 and took it as the approximate mean for pure Negroids.

          The lower IQ of Africans, as compared to Europeans and Asians, is confirmed by studies conducted by black Africans, such as Zindi in Zimbabwe.[45]

          Studies of Korean children adopted by white American families have shown that their intelligence scores were higher than white American children. Studies of Korean children adopted by Belgians gave similar results.

                A study by Brooks (1989) examined a group of Korean children raised by white American families. She compared their activity level and temperament with white infants raised in white families and Oriental infants raised in Oriental families. The adopted children scored partway between the other two groups suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors were operative.[46]


          Professor Rushton is informative on the issue of race and crime:

                Afro-Americans currently account for about half of all arrests for assault and murder and two-thirds of all arrests for robbery in the United States, even though they constitute less than one-eighth of the population. Since about the same proportion of victims say their assailant was black, the arrest statistics cannot be attributed to police prejudice. Blacks are also over-represented among persons arrested for most white-collar offenses. For example, in 1980 blacks made up about one-third of those arrested for fraud, forgery, counterfeiting, and receiving stolen property, and about one-fourth of those arrested for embezzlement. Blacks are underrepresented only among those white-collar offenses that ordinarily require, for their commission, access to high status occupations (tax fraud, securities violations).
                A similar racial pattern is to be found in other industrialized Western countries. In London, England, for example, while comprising 13 percent of the population, African-descended people account for 50 percent of the crime (Daily Telegraph, March 24, 1983). The dark-skinned Caucasoids from Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh, however, who are also recent immigrants, do not appear to be higher in crime than white populations. In Toronto, Canada, unofficial figures suggest that recent Afro-Caribbean immigrants, while making up 2 to 5 percent of the population, are responsible for between 32 and 40 percent of the crime (The Globe and Mail, February 8, 1989). Immigrants from the Pacific Rim, however, are underrepresented in crime.
                In the 1920s the under-representation of the Chinese in the U.S. crime figures led American criminologists to consider the ghetto as a place that protected members from the disruptive tendencies of the outside society (J.Q. Wilson & Hernstein, 1985: 473). Among blacks the ghetto is said to foster crime. Detailed analyses made in the United States show that currently one in four black males between the ages of 20 and 29 is either in jail, on probation, or on parole and that this is not due to bias in the criminal justice system (Klein, Petersilia, & Turner, 1990).
                I have found that, internationally, African and Caribbean countries report twice the amount of violent crime (murder, rape, and serious assault) as do European countries and three times more than do countries from the Pacific Rim (Rushton, 1990b). Summing crime data from the International Police Organization (INTERPOL) and averaging across years gives figures per 100,000 population, respectively, of 142, 74, and 43. These proportionate racial differences are similar to those found using statistics from within the United States.

          The New Century Foundation has produced a report, The Color of Crime: Race, Crime and Justice in America, which shows that Blacks in the USA are many times more likely to commit violent crimes than Asians, Whites, or Hispanics. The report also demonstrated that the police are not biased against minorities, as the arrest and conviction rate of criminals by race is reflected in victim reports of the race of criminals.

                Blacks are seven times more likely than people of other races to commit murder, and eight times more likely to commit robbery. ...
                Hispanics commit violent crimes at roughly three times the white rate, and Asians commit violent crimes at about one quarter the white rate. ...
                Of the nearly 770,000 violent interracial crimes committed every year involving blacks and whites, blacks commit 85 percent and whites commit 15 percent. Blacks commit more violent crime against whites than against blacks. Forty-five percent of their victims are white, 43 percent are black, and 10 percent are Hispanic. When whites commit violent crime, only three percent of their victims are black. Blacks are an estimated 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against a white than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to commit robbery.

          Rushton reports that further evidence of the genetic heritability of criminal behaviour comes from the study of twins. A Danish study of 3,586 male twin pairs and the committing of serious offences showed a 42% correlation for crimes against persons (21% for fraternal twins) and a 40% correlation for crimes against property (16% for fraternal twins). Smaller-scale studies in Japan showed similar results.
          This evidence was further strengthened by American, Danish, and Swedish studies of adopted children, showing both genetic and environmental influences.
          A Danish study of 14,427 adoptees showed both genetic and environmental correlations. The rates of adoptees who had criminal record were:
          14% for those whose neither adoptive nor biological parents had a criminal record.
          15% for those whose adoptive parents (but not biological) had a criminal record.
          20% for those whose biological parents had a criminal record.
          25% for those whose both adoptive and biological parents had a criminal record.
          The lesson to be drawn from these studies is not that all children of those who are criminals and/or violent will become criminals and/or violent, but that there exists a genetic heritability - a genetic predisposition - towards criminal and/or violent behaviour. Increased incidence of such genetic predisposition occurs not only within human families but also within human races.[49]

          Rushton continues:

                The central role of intelligence in law abidingness is demonstrated by the finding that IQ has an effect on delinquency independent of family background, race, or class. Siblings reared together in the same families show almost the same degree of association between IQ and delinquency as is found in the general population (Hirschi & Hindelang, 1977). The relation between IQ and delinquency was measured by self-reports as well as by incarcerations, so the result is not just due to clever people evading capture. Less intelligent people often lack behavioral restraint, marriage-bonding techniques, adequate parenting styles, and moral rules, and are less capable of creating stable personal circumstances or of predicting their environment. ...
                One advantage of an evolutionary perspective is the focus it brings to underlying physiology including the endocrine system. ... there are reliable differences among the races in testosterone. Relative to whites, blacks have more and Orientals have less.
                Testosterone may order many of the racial differences, for it has been related to self-concept, temperament, sexuality, aggression, and altruism, in women as well as in men (Baucom, Besch, & Callahan, 1985; Dabbs, Ruback, Frady, Hopper, & Sgoutas, 1988). In a study of 4,462 U.S. male veterans, where extensive archival records were available, Dabbs and Morris (1990) found testosterone correlated with reports of childhood delinquency, adult delinquency, drug use, alcohol abuse, military misconduct, and having many sex partners. Testosterone is also involved in the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as muscularity and depth of voice (Haeberle, 1978; Hudson & Holbrook, 1982) as well as the organization and structure of the brain.

          As Professor Rushton has described, a relationship exists between intelligence and law abidingness, as less intelligent people often lack behavioural restraint. A relationship also exists between testosterone and law abidingness as testosterone affects temperament, sexuality, and aggression.
          When a group of people have low levels of intelligence and high levels of testosterone, it is reasonable to expect higher rates of both violent crime and sexual crime, an expectation borne out by the evidence of generally higher rates of such crimes in countries of African ethnicity and - in non-African countries - amongst those of African ethnicity.
          It should be made clear that this does not mean that all ethnic-African individuals are violent, but rather that the genetic predisposition towards violence is more widespread amongst ethnic-African population groups than amongst ethnic-European or ethnic-Asian population groups.

Medical conditions and treatment

                Just as women doctors have advocated that to conceptualize women as being the same as men leads to a neglect of women's problems and their treatment (e.g., premenstrual symptoms and menopause and hormone replacement therapy), so black doctors have become concerned that treating blacks the same as whites is to neglect black problems. For example, 30 percent of the people who have kidney failure and undergo dialysis are black, but estimates are that fewer than 10 percent of organ donors are black. Blacks fare better with organs donated from blacks.
                Another example is that genetics contributes to black hypertension. Black men experience a faster heart rate when performing moderate exercise, although the pulse rates of the black and white men while resting showed no significant differences. Black men have higher rates of cancer of the prostate than white men who in turn have higher rates than Oriental men, one determinant of which is testosterone (Polednak, 1989).
                Racial differences exist in risk for AIDS with blacks being most at risk and Asians least so (chap. 8). In the United States, blacks, who make up 12 percent of the population, represent 30 percent of those with AIDS. Among women, 53 percent of those with AIDS are black. Fifty-five percent of children with AIDS are black.
                Race is also a critical factor in the success of many medicines. For example, Asians are more sensitive to the drugs used to treat anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia, requiring lower dosages; they are also more likely to have side effects with lower dosages (Levy, 1993). Another widely cited example is that Asians are more sensitive to the adverse effects of alcohol, especially to marked facial flushing, palpitation, and tachycardia. Levy (1993: 143) argues that ethnicity should be taken into account in formulary selection and prescribing decisions for individual patients.

                Race or ethnicity is a risk factor that changes the probability that an individual will respond in the expected way to a given drug therapy. ...
                Two factors led to genetic differences among peoples and hence potential differences in drug response. First, genetic mutations continued to arise spontaneously in populations that were geographically isolated form one another. These mutations were subject to environmental selection. Second, because these population movements were initiated by subgroups of people, they tended to represent only a particular subset of the genetic polymorphisms that were present in the entire human population. ...
                Research in the last 35 years has uncovered significant differences among racial and ethnic groups in their rates of drug metabolism, in clinical responses to drugs, and in drug side effects. African American and White patients differ significantly in their responses to beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics used either alone or in combination for the treatment of hypertension. Chinese are considerably more sensitive than Whites to the effects of the beta-blocker propranolol on heart rate and blood pressure. Asians are more likely to require lower dosages than Whites of a variety of different psychotropic drugs, including lithium, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. ...
                Practicing physicians treating individual patients and, equally importantly, institutional policy makers should be sensitive to the implications of racial and ethnic differences in drug therapy. …
                ACE inhibitors have greater effects on hypertension and heart failure in Whites than in African Americans. Similarly, the response to the beta-blocker isoproterenol is greater in Whites than in African Americans. Conversely, the antihypertensive response to the diuretic hydrochorothiazide is greater in African Americans, while exposure to the calcium channel blocker nifedipine is lower in Whites than in South Asians, Koreans, or Nigerians.
                ... a study of the pharmacodynamics of propranolol found that, at equivalent blood levels, Chinese men had greater sensitivity than White men to propranolol's effects on heart rate and blood pressure. Paradoxically, the Chinese subjects metabolized propranolol much more rapidly than the White subjects; the total blood clearance for the Chinese was 76% higher ...
                There are general differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension between the Black and White populations. Black hypertensives exhibit enhanced sodium retention, a higher incidence of salt-sensitive hypertension, expanded blood volume, more frequent proteinuria, and a higher prevalence of low blood renin activity … These factors may underlie some of the observed differences in the effectiveness of various antihypertensive drugs in Black populations. ...
                studies have in general found that, compared with Whites, Asians respond to lower doses of antipsychotic drugs and develop toxic side effects at lower doses.

                "Complex" genetic disorders such as asthma, cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis are most likely due to multiple, potentially interacting, genes and environmental factors and are thus more challenging to study. The genetic determinants of the majority of these disorders are currently poorly understood, but the few examples that do exist demonstrate clinically important racial and ethnic differences in gene frequency. For example, factor V Leiden, a genetic variant that confers an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disease, is present in about 5 percent of white people. In contrast, this variant is rarely found in East Asians and Africans (prevalence, <1 percent). Susceptibility to Crohn's disease is associated with three polymorphic genetic variants in the CARD15 gene in whites; none of these genetic variants were found in Japanese patients with Crohn's disease. Another important gene that affects a complex trait is CCR5 - a receptor used by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to enter cells. As many as 25 percent of white people (especially in northern Europe) are heterozygous for the CCR5-delta32 variant, which is protective against HIV infection and progression, whereas this variant is virtually absent in other groups, thus suggesting racial and ethnic differences in protection against HIV.
                ... knowledge of a person's ancestry may facilitate testing, diagnosis, and treatment when genetic factors are involved.

          Many medical conditions are genetically-based, as are reactions to various drugs. Awareness of racial factors will help doctors determine diseases that are more prevalent in some population groups, as well as help determine medical treatments.[54]

Blood pressure

                It has been known since the 1930s that blacks are more likely to have higher blood pressure than whites. Hypertension, which clearly has a genetic component and runs in families, is associated with heart disease, stroke, hardening of the arteries, and hypertensive kidney failure. Blacks die from all of these diseases more frequently than whites. Since stress can increase blood pressure, this difference has frequently been blamed on racism.
                In fact, blacks show physiological responses that contribute to high blood pressure. In one experiment, blacks and whites who were carefully matched for age, sex, diet, medical history, and fitness levels were given a mild but harmless stress test in which they had a hand packed in ice for 30 seconds. The normal reaction is for blood vessels to constrict; however, blacks' vessels stayed constricted - thus elevating blood pressure - for ten times longer than those of whites.
                A salty diet can increase blood pressure. Blacks and whites have essentially the same levels of salt intake, but blacks retain salt for a far longer period than whites before excreting it. Blood pressure in blacks also rises and falls much more rapidly in response to changes in salt consumption. Similarly, blacks with high blood pressure respond more readily than whites to diuretic drugs, which cause the kidneys to excrete salt. Whites respond more readily to so-called beta-blockers, which reduce heart rate and heart output.
                It has recently been discovered that blacks have less flexible blood vessels than whites. Their arteries do not dilate as well as those of whites, and dilation helps blood circulate more rapidly when there is high demand for it. Blacks may compensate by increasing blood pressure.


                This study compared racial differences in end-stage renal disease ... Age had little effect on survival among African-American patients, while it was a significant predictor of survival in white patients. In the group of patients starting dialysis before the age of 30 years, African-American patients had a significantly increased mortality risk compared with white patients. However, white patients older than 50 years had a higher mortality risk; this risk difference increased with age. Racial differences in mortality among older white patients could not be explained by differences in comorbid conditions, transplantation rates, or withdrawal from dialysis.

                black hypertensive patients were found to have significantly higher urinary albumin excretion rates compared with the white patients; in addition, a significantly greater proportion of the black patients than the white patients (32% v 14%) had microalbuminuria ... Hypertensive renal failure occurs six to 18 times more frequently in blacks than in whites [56]

Breast cancer

                Researchers report in the August issue of the online edition of the journal Cancer that the tumors of African-American women are nearly four times more likely to have a genetic mutation related to a more aggressive form of breast cancer than are the tumors of white women.
                The study, "African American/White Differences in Breast Carcinoma," was led by Beth Jones, PhD, an epidemiologist at the Yale University School of Medicine. ...
                The study found that African-American women were more likely to have tumors that had alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene (Twenty-eight (24.5%) of the African-American women had tumors that were p53-positive compared with 9 (7.1%) of the white women.) This is significant because mutations in the p53 gene are associated with poorer outcomes, possibly because the mutations make chemotherapy less effective. No differences were seen between the two groups in the number of tumors that were HER-2 positive or c-met positive.
                Like previous studies, this study found that African-American women were more likely than white women to be diagnosed with later stage breast cancer, to have larger tumors, and to have had their cancer spread to their lymph nodes. The African-American women were also more likely to have Grade 3 tumors (the grade refers to how abnormal the cells appear), and tumors that were hormone-negative. (The study found that 53 (46.5%) of the African-American women had tumors that were estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive compared with 79 (61.2%) of the white women; 35 (31%) of the African-American women had tumors that were progesterone receptor (PR)-positive compared with 48 (37.5%) of the white women.) As the researchers note, "this is the first population-based investigation to report that there are significant differences between African-American and white women with regard to the prevalence of tumors that overexpress p53." These findings, they continue, are "consistent with the emerging literature showing that African-American women are more likely than white women to be diagnosed with aggressive tumors."

Prostate cancer

                The high rate of prostate cancer among African American men may result in large part from a newly identified stretch of DNA passed down from their African ancestors.
                A black man's odds of developing prostate cancer by age 55 are more than twice those of a white man. The racial discrepancy is less pronounced when the disease appears later. Researchers have suspected for years that genetic factors account for part of the racial difference in risk.
                Most African Americans have both African and European forebears, so their chromosomes are mosaics of genes from the two continents. Previously identified genetic markers indicate that in U.S. blacks, an average of about 80 percent of the DNA is African in origin.
                Geneticists have long hypothesized that they could identify disease-causing chunks of DNA by sifting through the genomes of ethnically mixed populations and noting where people with a disease tend to have genes from the same ancestral source, says David Reich of Harvard Medical School in Boston. Recent technical advances have made this approach feasible.
                Reich and his colleagues analyzed the genomes of nearly 1,600 African Americans who had developed prostate cancer. In those men, a portion of chromosome 8 containing nine known genes was more frequently of African origin than were other portions of the DNA.
                Those findings suggest that having African rather than European DNA at the chromosome-8 location places a man at high risk of prostate cancer, the researchers report in an upcoming Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Ovulation and twins

                The races differ in the rate at which they double ovulate. Among Mongoloids, the frequency of dizygotic twins [two-egg, or fraternal twins] per 1,000 births is less than 4, among Caucasoids the rate is 8 per 1,000, and among Negroids the figure is greater than 16 per 1,000, with some African populations having twin frequencies of more than 57 per 1,000 (Bulmer, 1970). Recent reviews of twinning rates in the United States (Allen, 1988) and Japan (Imaizumi, 1992) confirm the racial differences. Note that the frequency of monozygotic twinning is nearly constant at about 4 per 1,000 in all groups. Monozygotic twinning is the result of a single fertilized egg splitting into two identical parts.
                The frequency of three-egg triplets and four-egg quadruplets shows a comparable racial ordering. For triplets, the rate per million births among Mongoloids is 10, among Caucasoids 100, and among Negroids 1,700; and for quadruplets, per million births, among Mongoloids 0, among Caucasoids 1, and among Negroids, 60 (Allen, 1987; Nylander, 1975). Data from racially mixed matings show that multiple births are largely determined by the race of the mother, independently of the race of the father, as found in MongoloidCaucasoid crosses in Hawaii, and Caucasoid-Negroid crosses in Brazil (Bulmer, 1970).

                Fraternal twinning is twice as common among blacks as among whites, and twice as common among whites as among Asians. Triplets are ten times more common among whites than among Asians and 17 times more common among Africans than among whites. In some African populations, multiple births account for 60 out of every 1000.[60]

Relative Ranking of Races on Diverse Variables

Professor J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behavior
[2nd special abridged edition, 2000] [61]

Variable Blacks Whites Orientals
Brain Size:
Cranial capacity 1,267 1,347 1,364
Cortical neurons (millions) 13,185 13,665 13,767
IQ test scores 85 100 106
Cultural Achievements Low High High
2-egg twinning (per 1000 births) 16 8 4
Hormone Levels Higher Intermediate Lower
Sex characteristics Larger Intermediate Smaller
Intercourse frequencies Higher Intermediate Lower
Permissive attitudes Higher Intermediate Lower
Sexually transmitted diseases Higher Intermediate Lower
Aggressiveness Higher Intermediate Lower
Cautiousness Lower Intermediate Higher
Impulsivity Higher Intermediate Lower
Self-concept Higher Intermediate Lower
Sociability Higher Intermediate Lower
Gestation time Shorter Longer Longer
Skeletal development Earlier Intermediate Later
Motor development Earlier Intermediate Later
Dental development Earlier Intermediate Later
Age of first intercourse Earlier Intermediate Later
Age of first pregnancy Earlier Intermediate Later
Life-span Shortest Intermediate Longest
Social organization:
Marital stability Lower Intermediate Higher
Law abidingness Lower Intermediate Higher
Mental health Low Intermediate Higher

Multiculturalism and racial differences

Intimidation of scientists

          Unfortunately, in today's climate of political Multiculturalism and Political Correctness, scientists investigate or reveal differences between the races at their peril. Those scientists who publish such information, more especially if their findings show any "inferiority" on the part of non-Europeans, may be harassed, persecuted, and abused by Multiculturalists in the media and academia, even leading to funding being being withdrawn and being sacked.
          For this reason, as noted by Prof. Gottfredson and Prof. Rushton "much self-censorship operates among social scientists regarding making public pronouncements about race differences."[62]

          The drive to censor discussion on racial differences is even being carried out in the field of medicine, with some medical publications seeking to remove race as an issue from medical reporting. The Wikipedia reports:

                In February, 2001, the editors of the medical journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine asked authors to no longer use "race" as explanatory variable nor to use obsolescent terms. Other prestigious peer-reviewed journals, such as the New England Journal of Medicine and the American Journal of Public Health, have done the same. Furthermore, the National Institutes of Health recently issued a program announcement for grant applications through February 1, 2006, specifically seeking researchers who can investigate and publicize among primary care physicians the detrimental effects on the nation's health of the practice of medical racial profiling using such terms.[63]

          Considering that racial differences can be relevant in medical treatments, this is "political correctness" gone mad. Apparently, some Multiculturalists would prefer that people get sick and die, rather than admit to distinct differences between the human races.[64]

Multiculturalism creates racial hatred

          One of the real, and ironic, tragedies of "political correctness" as pursued by Multiculturalists is that it creates racial hatred, particularly between Africans and Europeans. As Louis Andrews explains,

                Egalitarians - mostly liberals, leftists, and evangelical Christians - have convinced most blacks, and many whites, that the lack of identical outcomes is a result of past and/or present discrimination. As a result, many blacks blame whites for their perceived failure, or "the system."
                Many conservatives, particularly neo-conservatives, blame blacks. They accuse blacks of  failure to resist government intrusion, of failure to measure up to white standards. They argue that if blacks would only act and behave like whites they would have the same outcomes as whites. The result of this environmentalism is a tendency to blame the other race for some kind of inexplicable moral failure, or lack of leadership, ignoring the differences in mean IQ which predict the observed differences in behaviour.
                Because of the prevalence of misconceptions about race, discrimination is presumed to exist whenever outcomes differ. However, because of race differences and the nature of our highly technological society, outcomes will always differ and are steadily diverging. There is firm evidence that the growth in overall black success peaked in about 1970 and has been relatively flat since then. Discrimination has been substantially reduced since 1970, but misconceptions about race encourage the belief that it is still widespread and even increasing.
                The traditional national policies of assimilation and conformity have given way, largely via the impact of the 1960's, to the rise of multiculturalism, multi-racialism, and the politics of diversity. This has lead increasingly to "the twilight of common dreams," as former radical, Todd Gitlin, described it in his book by that name. This encourages many members of minority groups to act and behave in ways alien to traditional American society, leading to less success in dealings with whites, and increased antagonism.
                There is a reign of fear among knowledgeable whites on the subject, since even mention of race differences has become prima-facie evidence that one is a racist, i.e. hates persons of other races. In such a climate it becomes very difficult to discuss the critical issue of race differences. One wag has referred to it as the "stinking dead rhino in the middle of the room" that everyone walks around and tries to ignore. ...
                As the outcomes increasingly diverge, we will see vastly increased racial polarization. Blacks will increasingly blame "racist whites" or "the racist system." Whites will grow angrier at increasingly baseless black accusations, at lack of black performance, and at the growing black welfare class. Increased globalization and immigration will accentuate these trends as whites see immigrants adjust to the increasingly technological society while blacks don't and as blacks see massive job loss in the traditional black job areas as jobs go to immigrants, who are seen as outsiders by them.

          No doubt there are many who would like to think of their own people or race as "the best"; this is a common human trait, and can be seen with regard to people's sporting teams, home towns, nations, and even races. Africans may boast that they are the best at rhythm, sprinting, and basketball; Whites may boast they are best at swimming, law, and scientific inventing; Asians may boast they are best at table tennis, engineering, and cultural creativity. They may or may not be correct in their assertions, but - just as with people who boast in favour of their football team or home town - it doesn't matter, so long as people respect the rights of other races to exist as unique human entities.

Racial realists

          Those who recognise racial differences are simply racial realists, recognising scientifically confirmed genetic facts; to call race realists "racist" is simply a tactic of "politically correct" ideological thuggery, used by Multiculturalists to intimidate and silence political opponents, often quite effectively, whilst those same Multiculturalists promote large-scale immigration and globalism to destroy unique cultures and nations across the world.
          Multiculturalists will often point to particular individuals as a rationale for the swamping of Western countries by Third World peoples; pointing out a hard-working Asian doctor, a cute African child, a nice Arab person, etc., etc., as propaganda for their position, but they miss the point, or at least they pretend to do so. They can see the individual trees, but not the entire forest. The existence of various nice Third World people is no reason for all ethnically European countries to cease their unique existence, to open their borders, and to be swamped into oblivion by a huge tidal wave of Third World immigration.
          The Multiculturalists would have us abolish all national borders, and they know that to do so would mean that the populations of the Third World nations would swarm into the nations of "the West", into the ethnically European countries, and overwhelm our populations by sheer weight of numbers. Yet, there is no good reason for the Western peoples to want to commit national suicide, to submit their peoples to cultural and racial genocide.
          Those who merely wish to defend the existence and survival of their people are not "racists", but are simply defending their people against Multiculturalist genocide. Those who believe in a Protectionist philosophy only want to protect their people, industries, culture, and way of life.
          To acknowledge differences between the human races is simply a matter of acknowledging reality, not a matter of creating "hate". Those who actually hate other people because of their skin colour or race are usually prejudiced or bigoted. The common definition of "racist" as someone who hates people because of their skin colour or race can be applied to such bigots, but not to those Protectionists who simply wish to preserve the uniqueness of their own people.

          Indeed, if the term "racist" is to be applied to anyone today, it should be used with regard to the Multiculturalists, the Globalists, who are the true racists. They advocate genocide, seeking the destruction of peoples via immigration and assimilation, and they carry out racial discrimination against people because of their race, but call it "affirmative action", "special opportunities", or "targeted funding".
          Multiculturalists are eternal hypocrites. They fawn over Asian and African cultures, yet often vilify and deride White cultures. They promote groups dedicated to Asian and African interests within our societies, yet they denounce any groups dedicated to White interests as "racist"; it is considered alright to create an "Black Students Association", but the creation of a "White Students Association" will immediately call forth the bigotry, prejudice, and hate of Multiculturalists against such a group. Multiculturalists are filled with hate for the existence of White nations, yet celebrate the uniqueness of Asian and African nations.
          Any organisation created to further the interests of a non-White racial group may prefix their organisation's name with a description of their race, such as "Black", "African", "Asian", "Aboriginal", etc. However, any organisation created to further the interests of White people will immediately be subjected to harassment, bullying, and attacks from the media, Multiculturalist lobbyists, and Multiculturalist thugs. If that is not racism, then what is? Exactly when is it permissible for White people to have their own race-specific organisations, just like non-Whites do? The truth is that such anti-White prejudice is indicative of the racist and genocidal nature of the Multiculturalist ideology.
          And, to make it worse, Multiculturalists pass anti-democracy laws to make it illegal to criticise Multiculturalist Globalism and its constituent elements, such as Third World immigration and Asianisation, and make it illegal to tell the truth about Islam or racial differences and their impact upon society.

          In a democracy, the general public should have access to the truth about racial differences so that they can make their own informed decisions regarding the formulation of public policies, with regard to immigration and population policies in particular.
          For example, if there existed a race of people who - as a group - committed murder, rape, and assault at a rate many times more than the general population, then wouldn't the general public be entitled to receive that information, so that they could make their own decision on the subject?
          If there are disagreements on any issue, it is always best to let all sides debate and lobby for their viewpoint, and to let all sides be heard, because freedom of speech is the essential cornerstone of democracy. Yet, under Multiculturalism, laws have been passed to enable the silencing of those who criticise immigration, Islam, and the various realities of Multiculturalism; and these laws have been compounded by the threatening of the livelihood of critics, and by their harassment and vilification by the mass media (dominated as it is by Multiculturalists). Such laws and practices are enabled by the Multiculturalist elite, of politicians, big businessmen, academics, and journalists.
          For the Multiculturalist elite, safe in their ivory towers, to dictate to the general public what issues they can and cannot discuss, and therefore what knowledge they should and should not have, is not only the height of hypocrisy, but is also indicative of the authoritarian nature of Multiculturalism and Political Correctness.

          In a democracy, both sides of an issue can have their say, without fear or favour, so that the public can make up their own mind. In a neo-fascist country, only one side of an issue will be allowed to be heard, whilst the government will "protect" the general public from having to make their own decisions, from having to form their own opinions. In a neo-fascist country, those who state an opinion different to that of the government and the country's "ruling elite" run the risk of being fined or jailed, just for speaking their mind on matters of concern to them.
          Similarly, in countries that adhere to the ideology of Multiculturalism, critics can be silenced by the use of so-called racial vilification laws and other coercive methods. Under the rule of Multiculturalism and Political Correctness, people can be threatened with fines, financial ruin, and even jail simply for stating their opinions, even if those opinions can be backed up with scientific evidence; because, under the rule of political Multiculturalism, telling the truth is no defence.
          It is time to throw off the shackles of Multiculturalism and Political Correctness, and to remove Thought Crimes from the law books. It is time to recognise and respect the freedom of speech of the Australian People, and to support the democratic traditions of Australian society.


[1] John R. Baker, Race, Foundation for Human Understanding, Athens (Georgia, USA), 1981 (©1974).
"Mainstream Science on Intelligence", [a public statement, signed by 52 internationally known scientists, The Wall Street Journal, 13 December 1994], (Stalking the Wild Taboo),
J. Philippe Rushton, "Is Race A Valid Taxonomic Construct?" [14 December 2001], (Charles Darwin Research Institute),
J. Philippe Rushton, "Is There a Biological Basis for Race and Racial Differences?" [Insight, 28 May 2001], (Stalking the Wild Taboo),
J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective [2nd special abridged edition, 2000], (Charles Darwin Research Institute),,, [also at: (Theedrich's Hive),]
Glayde Whitney, "The Biological Reality of Race" [American Renaissance, Vol.10, No.10, October 1999], (American Renaissance),
[2] John R. Baker, Race, 1981, p.208, 210 [re. nose].
"Epicanthic fold", (General Practice Notebook),
"House of Beauty: Rose-Meta Salon Is Biggest Negro Beauty Parlor in World" [excerpts from Ebony, May 1946 and January 1969], (HIUS 316 - Viewing America [a subsite of: Virginia Center for Digital History (University of Virginia)]), [internet site],
A Nappy Hair Affair [internet site],
[3] John R. Baker, Race, 1981, p.333 [re. pelvis], p.173-174 [re. smell].
"Oval Window" [re. skull], (Forensic Anthropology sub-site, Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah),
see also: "Human Biological Variation", (Forensic Anthropology sub-site, op. cit.),
[4] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA), 1997, p.235.
[5] David Brown, "Human Ancestors May Have Interbred With Chimpanzees" [Washington Post, 18 May 2006, p.A01], (Washington Post),,
Note [further information]: "Mallet said, about 10 percent of animal species are capable of interbreeding with related species, even though the number that do so in any population is very small."
See also: David Brown, "Human Ancestors May Have Interbred With Chimpanzees" [Washington Post, 18 May 2006, p.A01], (Washington Post),
[6] Andrew Fraser, [Letter from Andrew Fraser (Associate Professor in Public Law) to Ms Sadie Hamer (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) 10 October 2005], on the internet at: "Prof. Fraser Replies" [29 March 2006], (Of Interest),
[7] J. Philippe Rushton, "The New Enemies of Evolutionary Science" [Liberty, March, 1998, Vol.II, No.4, pp.31-35], (Stalking the Wild Taboo),
[8] "DNAPrint plays role in capture", (DNAPrint Genomics),
Malcolm Ritter, "DNA test in La. killings is said to have indicated attacker's race" [Associated Press, 6/5/2003; Boston Globe, 6/5/2003, p.A2], (DNAPrint Genomics),
[9] "DNA Witness Used to Guide the Investigation in Trail Side Murder Case in Concord, California", (DNAPrint Genomics),
see also other examples:
"Dnaprint Genomics Forensics Technology Assists Police in Identifying Suspect in California Double Murder", [3 Oct. 2005], (DNAPrint Genomics),
"DNAWitness™ Used to Guide the Investigation of the '97 rape and murder of Susannah Chase", (DNAPrint Genomics),
[10] Thomas Jackson, "Science Strikes Back" [American Renaissance, April 2004], (American Renaissance),
see also: J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.149.
[11] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.147.
[12] Glayde Whitney, "The Biological Reality of Race", [American Renaissance, October 1999], (American Renaissance),
[13] Samuel Taylor, "A New Theory of Racial Differences" [American Renaissance, Vol.5, No.12, December, 1994; book review of Race, Evolution, and Behavior by J. Philippe Rushton], (American Renaissance),
[14] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.291.
Note: "Negroids exhibit moderate to pronounced inversion in the area midway up the posterior edge of the ramus ... Caucasoids and Mongoloids show little or no inversion", see "Gonial Inversion" [re. human mandibles], (Forensic Anthropology sub-site, Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah),
[15] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.163.
[16] Glayde Whitney, "The Biological Reality of Race", [American Renaissance, October 1999], (American Renaissance),
[17] Jennifer Drapkin, "Healthy bones: Got milk? It's not enough", Psychology Today, August 2005, p.23.
[18] Glayde Whitney, "The Biological Reality of Race", [American Renaissance, October 1999], (American Renaissance),
[19] Bert Thompson, Ph.D., "The Origin of Races" (Apologetics Press), [cites Marc McCutcheon, The Compass in Your Nose, Jeremy P. Tarcher, Los Angeles, 1989, p.25-35.]
[20] Glayde Whitney, "The Biological Reality of Race", [American Renaissance, October 1999], (American Renaissance),
[21] Jon Entine, "The Story Behind the Amazing Success of Black Athletes; Part II: Shattering Racist Myths: The Science Behind Why Kenyans Dominate Distance Running", (Run-Down Running Portal),
see also: Jon Entine, "The Story Behind the Amazing Success of Black Athletes; Part I: The Race to the Swift or the Swift to the Race", (Run-Down Running Portal),
see also: Jon Entine, "Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports And Why We're Afraid to Talk About It" [book excerpts from Jon Entine's book Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports And Why We're Afraid to Talk About It], (Jon Entine Online):
"Part One: The Sprints",
"Part Two: Middle Distances: The Only Integrated Olympic Races,"
"Part Three: The Kenya Connection",
[22] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.163.
[23] Louis Andrews, "No Technical Solution: A Synopsis of the Race Problem in the United States" [Pinc, Vol.3, No.1, May 2000], (Stalking the Wild Taboo),
[24] Jon Entine, "Are White Athletes an Endangered Species? And Why is it Taboo to Talk About It?" [UK Mail, 29 January 2000], (Jon Entine Online),
[25] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.162.
[26] Bert Thompson, Ph.D., "The Origin of Races" (Apologetics Press), [cites Marc McCutcheon, The Compass in Your Nose, Jeremy P. Tarcher, Los Angeles, 1989, p.25-35.]
[27] Bert Thompson, Ph.D., "The Origin of Races" (Apologetics Press), [cites Marc McCutcheon, The Compass in Your Nose, Jeremy P. Tarcher, Los Angeles, 1989, p.25-35.]
See also: "Racial Differences in Ear Wax" [January 30, 2006], (FamiLee Life: The Inside and Outside of Academia),
[28] Nicholas Wade, "Japanese Scientists Identify Ear Wax Gene" [New York Times, 29 January 2006], (New York Times),
[29] "One gene makes earwax wet or dry", (BBC [British Broadcasting Commission]),
[30] Stephen Molnar [Professor Emeritus Washington University], "Human Variation: Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups, Sixth Edition: Other Polymorphisms of Anthropological Interest", (SafariX eTextbooks Online),
[31] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.163.
[32] Mike Stobbe, "Study: Blacks Hear Better Than Whites" [AP, 15 June 2006], (American Renaissance),
[33] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.154-155.
[34] J. Walline, M. Mathew, J.D. Twelker, "Contact lenses for reducing myopia progression in children. (Protocol)" [Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3], 19 July 2004, (Wiley InterScience),
[35] "Chinese, English Speakers Vary at Math" [28 June 2006], (NewsMax: America's News Page),
"Chinese, English Speakers Vary At Math" [AP, 28 June 2006], (American Renaissance),
[36] Antonio Regalado, "Scientist's Study of Brain Genes Sparks a Backlash", [Wall Street Journal, 16 June 2006], (American Renaissance),
see also:
"Bruce_Lahn" [entry as at 14 September 2006], (Wikipedia),
"Diversity Trumps Scientific Inquiry in the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave, Part 426" [16 June 2006], (Steve Sailer: Blog Archives),
Nicholas Wade, "Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story" [New York Times, 7 March 2006], (Atheists of Silicon Valley),
[37] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.34.
see also: "Three Human IQ Types" [1 December 2004], (NuSapiens: Biology, Technology, Philosophy),
Note 1: "Intelligence tests often report two kinds of scores, a verbal score and a non-verbal score. The non-verbal score is determined by having an individual perform a variety of activities involving spatial reasoning, pattern recognition and other types of activities that do not involve language. The verbal IQ score is produced from a variety of verbal tasks involving such things as general work knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension of written material".
"Verbal IQ Score - defined", (Researchers Cognitive Aptitude Assessment Software),
Note 2: For example, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16.
There are 14 subtests of the WAIS-III:
Verbal IQ:
1) Information - Degree of general information acquired from culture. 2) Comprehension - Ability to deal with abstract social conventions, rules and expressions. 3) Arithmetic - Concentration while manipulating mental mathematical problems. 4) Similarities/Differences - Abstract verbal reasoning. 5) Vocabulary -The degree to which one has learned, been able to comprehend and verbally express vocabulary. 6) Digit span - Attention/concentration. 7) Letter-Number Sequencing - Attention and working memory.
Performance IQ:
8) Picture Completion - Ability to quickly perceive visual details. 9) Digit Symbol/Coding- Visual-motor coordination, motor and mental speed. 10) Block Design - Spatial perception, visual abstract processing & problem solving. 11) Matrix Reasoning - Nonverbal abstract problem solving, inductive reasoning, spatial reasoning. 12) Picture Arrangement - Logical/sequential reasoning, social insight. 13) Symbol Search - Visual perception, speed. 14) Object Assembly -Visual analysis, synthesis, and construction.
"Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale", (Wikipedia),
[38] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.45-68.
[39] Thomas J. Bouchard Jr.; David T. Lykken; Matthew McGue; Nancy L. Segal; Auke Tellegen, "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart" [Science, 12 October 1990 vol.250, no.4978, p.223-228], (Conscious Evolution),
The Influence of Heredity and Environment, (SparkNotes),
Farnoosh Tayyari, "The Genetic Basis Of Intelligence" [August 2004], (The Science Creative Quarterly),
[40] Professor Linda S. Gottfredson, "The General Intelligence Factor", (Eyal Reingold sub-site, Psychology Department, University of Toronto),
[41] Ulric Neisser, et al, "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns: Report of a Task Force established by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association" [7 August 1995], (Stalking the Wild Taboo),
see also [re. twin studies]: Samuel Taylor, "Genetics, Personality, and Race" [American Renaissance, Vol.4, No.8, August 1993], (American Renaissance),
[42] Thomas Jackson, "Science Strikes Back" [American Renaissance, April 2004], (American Renaissance),
[43] Samuel Taylor, "A New Theory of Racial Differences" [American Renaissance, Vol.5, No.12, December, 1994; book review of Race, Evolution, and Behavior by J. Philippe Rushton], (American Renaissance),
[44] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.133-137.
[45] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.280.
[46] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.191-192.
[47] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.157-158.
[48] "The Color of Crime: Race, Crime and Justice in America", (American Renaissance),, [2005 edition], [1999 edition]
[49] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.51.
"Antisocial Personality Disorder" [14 Sept. 2005], (Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment in Psychiatry),
Note: Hereditary factors play a role in many other aspects of human behaviour, such as alcoholism and anxiety disorders.
"Alcoholism" [14 Sept. 2005],
"Anxiety Disorders" [14 Sept. 2005],
[50] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.269, 271, and see: 290.
[51] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.8.
[52] Valentine J. Burroughs, MD, Randall W. Maxey, MD, PhD, and Richard A. Levy, PhD, "Racial And Ethnic Differences in Response to Medicines: Towards Individualized Pharmaceutical Treatment", (National Pharmaceutical Council),
[53] Esteban González Burchard, M.D., Elad Ziv, M.D., Natasha Coyle, Ph.D., Scarlett Lin Gomez, Ph.D., Hua Tang, Ph.D., Andrew J. Karter, Ph.D., Joanna L. Mountain, Ph.D., Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, M.D., Dean Sheppard, M.D., and Neil Risch, Ph.D., "The Importance of Race and Ethnic Background in Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice" [The New England Journal of Medicine, 20 March 2003, Volume 348, Number 12, pp.1170-1175)], (Stanford University School of Medicine: Center of Excellence in Diversity),
[54] see: Matthew Herper, "Race-Based Medicine Arrives" [05.10.2005], (Forbes),
"The future of race-based medicine" [conference announcement, 26 July 2006], (EurekAlert: Science News),
Steve Sailer, "Race Flat-Earthers Dangerous To Everyone's Health" [11 May 2003], (,
[55] "Race, Slavery, and Blood Pressure" [American Renaissance, Vol.7, No.5, May 1996], (American Renaissance),
see also: Judith A. Stewart, R. Dundas, R.S. Howard, A.G. Rudd, C.D.A. Wolfe, "Ethnic differences in incidence of stroke: prospective study with stroke register" [British Medical Journal, 1999; 318:967-971, 10 April], (British Medical Journal),
[56] Anthony J. Bleyer, Grethe S. Tell, Gregory W. Evans, Walter H. Ettinger Jr, John M. Burkart, Survival of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy in one center with special emphasis on racial differences, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 72-81 (July 1996)
John H. Summerson, Ronny A. Bell, Joseph C. Konen, Racial differences in the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertension, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 577-579 (October 1995)
[57] Susan Love, MD, "Study Finds Breast Tumors More Aggressive in African-American Women Than in White Women" [26 August 2004], (Susan Love MD Website for Women: Breast Cancer and Women's Health),
see also:
Susan Love, MD, "African-American Women and Breast Cancer", (Susan Love MD Website for Women),
Susan Love, MD, "African-American Women and Breast Cancer: Statistics", (Susan Love MD Website for Women),
[58] Ben Harder, "Risky Legacy: African DNA Linked To Prostate Cancer" [Science News, 26 August 2006]
Ben Harder, "Risky Legacy: African DNA linked to prostate cancer" [Science News, 26 August 2006; Vol.170, No.9 , p.131], (Science News Online),,
[59] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.165.
[60] Samuel Taylor, "A New Theory of Racial Differences" [American Renaissance, Vol.5, No.12, December, 1994; book review of Race, Evolution, and Behavior by J. Philippe Rushton], (American Renaissance),
[61] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective [2nd special abridged edition, 2000], (Charles Darwin Research Institute),, p.9.
[62] J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, 1997, p.294-295.
[63] "Race" [entry as at 14 September 2005], (Wikipedia),
References cited are: Frederick P. Rivara and Laurence Finberg, "Use of the Terms Race and Ethnicity," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 155, no. 2 (2001): 119. For similar author's guidelines, see Robert S. Schwartz, "Racial Profiling in Medical Research," The New England Journal of Medicine, 344 (no, 18, May 3, 2001); M.T. Fullilove, "Abandoning 'Race' as a Variable in Public Health Research: An Idea Whose Time has Come," American Journal of Public Health, 88 (1998), 1297-1298; and R. Bhopal and L. Donaldson, "White, European, Western, Caucasian, or What? Inappropriate Labeling in Research on Race, Ethnicity, and Health." American Journal of Public Health, 88 (1998), 1303-1307. See program announcement and requests for grant applications at the NIH website, at URL:
[64] For instance, see:
Esteban González Burchard, M.D. et al, "The Importance of Race and Ethnic Background in Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice" [The New England Journal of Medicine, 20 March 2003, Volume 348, Number 12, pp.1170-1175)], (Stanford University School of Medicine: Center of Excellence in Diversity),
Andrew John Karter, PhD, "Race and Ethnicity: Vital Constructs for Diabetes Research" [Diabetes Care, Volume 26, Number 7, July 2003, pp. 2189-2193], (Diabetes Care [American Diabetes Association]),
[65] Louis Andrews, "No Technical Solution: A Synopsis of the Race Problem in the United States" [Pinc, Vol.3, No.1, May 2000], (Stalking the Wild Taboo),

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